The X-ray diffraction laboratory is equipped with a Bruker D8 DISCOVER diffractometer.

This is a modular diffractometer with high flexibility in optic and detector set-up. The large radius of the goniometer circle (430 mm) allows a high grade of angle resolution.The LYNXEYE Linear detector is a very fast detector with a high capacity to discriminate the Kα from the flourecence and the Kβ.


fei f20

  • Routinely operated at 200 kV and 80 kV.
  • STWIN objective lens, allowing for relatively large tilting angles
  • Main characteristics at 200 kV
    • Cs=1.2 mm (spherical aberration coefficient)
    • Point-to-point resolution of 0.24 nm
    • Information limit of 0.1 nm
  • EDAX™ energy dispersive spectrometer for chemical analysis (classical SiLi detector, collection angle 0.09 sterad)
  • Lorenz lens enabling for in situ studies of magnetic materials
  • OneView Gatan™ 16 Megapixels CMOS camera with in situ drift correction, 25 frames per second at full resolution and a dynamic range way beyond classical CCDs
  • Dedicated specimen holders:
    • Low background double tilt Gatan analytical holder (with Faraday cup)
    • Liquid nitrogen cooled single tilt Gatan analytical holder (also low background)
    • Heating single tilt holder, designed to reach 1300 degC

image004– installation in due progress

  • Routinely operated at 200 kV and 80 kV
  • Scanning electron microscopy module (STEM)
  • UHR objective pole piece for enhanced resolution imaging
  • Main characteristics at 200 kV
    • Cs=0.5 mm (spherical aberration coefficient)
    • Point-to-point resolution of 0.19 nm
    • Information limit of 0.1 nm
  • ThermoNoran™ energy dispersive spectrometer for chemical analysis with an energy resolution of ~133 eV (classical SiLi detector, enhanced collection angle ~0.13 sterad, take-off angle ~20 deg)
  • Tridiem Gatan™ electron energy loss spectrometer for chemical analysis with an energy resolution of ~1 eV or less.
  • JEOL Bi-Prism for electron holographic measurements with a phase resolution of ~100 mrad at medium and low magnifications
  • Dedicated specimen holders
    • Low background double tilt JEOL analytical holders


Electron Optics

Source: Tungsten filament
Voltage: 200 V to 30 kV
Beam current: 10-12 to 10-5 A.
Resolution: 4.5 nm gold particle separation on a carbon substrate at 30 kV and 15mm working distance


• Secondary electrons (SE) detector: conventional Everhart-Thornley detector for topographical and stereoscopic imaging.
• Backscattered electrons (BSE) detector: angular solid-state detector for compositional imaging.
• Integral cathodoluminescence (CL) detector for impurities and lattice defect imaging.
• Energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS) detector for chemical element identification and quantitative analysis. The EDS X-ray system uses LN Oxford thin window detector of 138ev resolution (at Mn) and ISIS software for element analysis down to Boron. The system provides element mapping and line analysis, together with other morphological and chemical image processing capabilities.

SIMSOur PHI Model 2100 TRIFT II system is a state-of-the-art Time-of-Flight Secondary Ion Mass Spectrometry (TOF-SIMS) instrument. It uses a pulsed primary ion beam to desorb and ionize species from a sample surface. The resulting secondary ions are accelerated into a mass spectrometer, where they are mass analyzed by measuring their time-of-flight from the sample surface to the detector. An image is generated by rastering a finely focused beam across the sample surface. Due to the parallel detection nature of TOF-SIMS, the entire mass spectrum is aquired from every pixel in the image. The mass spectrum and the secondary ion images are then used to determine the composition and distribution of sample surface constituents.



The Quanta 200 FEG Environmental Scanning Electron Microscope (ESEM) uses a field-emission gun (FEG) electron source in an exceptionally high chamber pressure environment.

Our scanning 5600 AES/XPS system (PHI, USA) is a state-of-the-art analytical tool for chemical analysis of any solid material, ranging from Li to U. It can determine the chemical composition of surfaces not only by their atomic content but also by the chemical bonding of the surface atoms.

The equipment of WARMC thermal analysis lab includes:

  • Q2000 MDSC
  • Discovery Refrigerated Cooling System - RCS90
  • TGA-IR Q5000 IR system
  • Nicolet iS50 spectrometer